Clinical Evidence

Since 1999 there have been multiple studies, publications, scientific presentations, and abstracts and posters related to Skin Cholesterol and the PreVu® technology developed to measure it, that have been conducted, submitted, prepared and delivered by respected researchers from leading North American institutions in cardiovascular research including:

Much of this clinical data has been published in prestigious peer reviewed journals that include:

Corresponding presentations have been made at some of the most important conferences and meetings in the clinical world including:

Eight of the key peer reviewed articles are presented below, followed by a listing of the balance of scientific abstracts, presentations and posters related to Skin Cholesterol and PreVu that have been prepared over the years.

Peer-Reviewed Articles

  1. Title: Usefulness of Increased Skin Cholesterol to Identify Individuals at Increased Cardiovascular Risk (from the Predictor of Advanced Subclinical Atherosclerosis Study)

  2. Title: Skin Cholesterol Adds to Framingham Risk Assessment
    • Study Population: Skin cholesterol and Framingham global risk scores were determined in 649 intermediate and high-risk subjects scheduled for angiography.
    • Lead Institution: Department of Medicine and Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Pennsylvania
    • Key Findings: Individuals with elevated skin cholesterol and elevated Framingham global risk score were 4-fold more likely to have multi-vessel coronary artery disease than individuals with neither elevated.
    • Citation: Sprecher DL and Pearce GL. Skin cholesterol adds to Framingham risk assessment. Am Heart J 2006;152:694-96.

  3. Title: Skin Cholesterol Content Identifies Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Asymptomatic Adults

  4. Title: Elevated Skin Tissue Cholesterol Levels and Myocardial Infarction

  5. Title: Skin Tissue Cholesterol Assay Correlates with Presence of Coronary Calcium
    • Study Population: 222 intermediate risk subjects participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (a federally funded, multi-centre study) had their skin cholesterol and coronary calcium levels measured.
    • Lead Institution: Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Bayview Medical Center
    • Key Findings: Skin cholesterol levels were significantly associated with coronary calcium (a measurement of coronary artery disease) in Caucasians. Though skin cholesterol was not associated with coronary calcium in African-Americans, neither were traditional blood cholesterol levels.
    • Citation: Vaidya D, Ding J, Hill JG, et al. Skin tissue cholesterol assay correlates with presence of coronary calcium. Atherosclerosis 2005;181:167-73.

  6. Title: Skin Tissue Cholesterol (SknTC) is Related to Angiographically-Defined Cardiovascular Disease

  7. Title: Association of Skin Cholesterol Content, Measures by a Noninvasive Method, with Markers of Inflammation and Framingham Risk Prediction

  8. Title: A Novel Test for the Measurement of Skin Cholesterol

Additional Clinical Review

  1. Title: Skin Sterol Predicts TC / HDL and hsCRP in Low Risk Subjects; A Tool for Preventive Screening

  2. Title: Increased Skin Cholesterol Identifies Individuals at Increased Cardiovascular Risk: The Predictor of Advanced Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PASA) Study

  3. Title: A Fast, Non-Invasive Method for Measurement of Cholesterol in Skin Samples

  4. Title: Skin Cholesterol and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in High Risk Subjects

  5. Title: Skin Tissue Cholesterol and C-Reactive Protein are Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects with Coronary Heart Disease

  6. Title: A Novel, Non-Invasive Skin-Stripping Device and Method for Measurement of Cholesterol in Skin Samples

  7. Title: Skin Cholesterol Adds to Framingham Risk Assessment

  8. Title: Skin Cholesterol Content Identifies Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Asymptomatic Adults

  9. Title: Skin Tissue Cholesterol is Associated with Angina, Diabetes, and History of Stroke/TIA in Subjects with Coronary Artery Disease

  10. Title: Non-Invasive Skin Cholesterol Measurement Correlates with the Presence and Extent of Coronary Calcium

  11. Title: Skin Cholesterol Measurement in Children: A Pilot Study

  12. Title: Use of Skin Tissue Cholesterol in Combination with HDL in Risk Assessment of Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease and Previous Myocardial Infarction

  13. Title: Skin Cholesterol Predicts History of Myocardial Infarction

  14. Title: Skin Cholesterol: A New Method to Predict Angiographic Disease

  15. Title: Use of Skin Cholesterol to Monitor Response to Cholesterol-Lowering Therapy

  16. Title: Cholesterol 1, 2, 3* a Novel Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Skin Cholesterol
    • Presentation: Oral presentation at the 31st Annual Oak Ridge Conference, San Jose, April 1999

*PreVu was previously branded Cholesterol 1, 2, 3 during its early test and development phase.